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Prednisolone and Prednisone for dogs and cats: Uses, Dosage & Side Effects.



 

Ordering patient medications is easy. With an online account, access our extensive formulary or over 40, unique items - 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Ordering your pet's prescription drugs from Wedgewood Pharmacy is safe, and convenient. With a prescription number, easily refill prescriptions and enroll in the AutoRefill Program. Log in to fill, refill or renew the medication prescribed by your veterinarian. Commonly prescribed for: Manage inflammation in diseases or conditions where the immune system has a significant role.

Prednisone and prednisolone belong to a group of drugs known as corticosteroids. They are used to manage inflammation in diseases or conditions where the immune system has a significant role. The body manufactures a natural corticosteroid called cortisol in the adrenal gland.

The anti-inflammatory effects of prednisone and prednisolone are about four times stronger than those of the naturally occurring cortisol. We can let your veterinarian know that you are interested in our compounded Prednisolone and Prednisone. This content is intended for counseling purposes only. No claims are made as to the safety or efficacy of mentioned preparations. You are encouraged to speak with your prescriber as to the appropriate use of any medication.

Use of them does not imply any affiliation with or endorsement by them. About Human Health Careers Contact. Customer Care : Create an Online Account. Refill and Renew Pet Prescriptions. For Veterinary Practice. Call General Drug Information and Indications Prednisone and prednisolone belong to a group of drugs known as corticosteroids. Check with your veterinarian about the specific reason your pet is taking this medication.

Cats may require higher doses than dogs in order to achieve clinical response, but they are less likely to develop adverse side effects. Like many other drugs in veterinary medicine, this drug is not FDA approved for use in animals and is not available from a veterinary pharmaceutical manufacturer.

Instead, it is compounded by a specialty pharmacy. Prednisone and prednisolone are commonly used within veterinary medicine, and are considered accepted practice. How to Give this Medication Give this medication to your pet exactly as your veterinarian prescribes.

If you miss giving your pet a dose of prednisone or prednisolone, give the next dose as soon as you remember or, if it is close to the next scheduled dose, return to the regular schedule. Do not double dose to catch up. Give oral prednisone or prednisolone with food to reduce the chance of stomach irritation. The doses of prednisone or prednisolone that are used in an emergency and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases are higher than the doses used under other circumstances.

Wash your hands after giving your pet this medication. Side Effects Be sure to discuss any side-effects with your veterinarian immediately. Short-term administration of prednisone or prednisolone is unlikely to cause serious side effects.

Because these drugs affect almost all the systems in the body, they may cause a number of different side effects. The higher the dose and the longer the medication is given, the greater the chance of side effects. Short-term use of prednisone or prednisolone is unlikely to cause adverse effects.

The most-common side effects in dogs include increased thirst, urination, and appetite. Because drugs like prednisone and prednisolone suppress the immune system, your pet may be more susceptible to infections.

Contact your veterinarian if your pet shows signs of fever or infection. Some animals may become aggressive while on prednisone or prednisolone. Although cats are less likely to develop side effects than dogs, increased thirst, increased urination, increased appetite, weight gain, GI problems, and behavioral changes occur occasionally.

Precautions Keep this and all drugs out of reach of children. Do not give this medication to a person. Do not stop giving your pet prednisone or prednisolone abruptly; particularly if it has been receiving high doses or has been on the drug for a long period of time. This can cause serious, even life-threatening consequences. The dose must be tapered. Your veterinarian will advise you on how to slowly stop the medication. Prednisone and prednisolone suppress immune response.

Animals receiving prednisone or prednisolone may be more susceptible to bacterial or viral infections. Prednisone and prednisolone can also mask signs of infection, such as an elevated temperature. The immune response to vaccination may be reduced in animals that are receiving prednisone or prednisolone.

Prednisone and prednisolone is not generally used in patients with systemic fungal infections. Prednisone must be converted to prednisolone in the liver. Animals in liver failure should receive prednisolone rather than prednisone. Prednisone and prednisolone should be avoided or used very carefully in young animals both because of immune suppression and the risk of GI ulcers.

It should be avoided during pregnancy and lactation unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Drug Interactions Be sure to review with your veterinarian any medications or supplements your pet may be receiving.

Drugs that may cause drug interactions with prednisone and prednisolone include aspirin and other salicylates, phenytoin, phenobarbital, rifampin, cyclosporine, erythromycin, mitotane, anticholinesterase drugs such as neostigmine and pyridostigmine, amphotericin B, or diuretics, such as furosemide. The risk of stomach ulcers may be increased if prednisone or prednisolone is used at the same time with other drugs prone to causing ulcers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs.

Digitalis and potassium levels should be closely monitored in animals taking prednisone and prednisolone. Prednisone and prednisolone may increase insulin requirements in diabetic animals. Overdose If you suspect your pet or another animal was overdosed accidentally or has eaten this medication inadvertently, contact your veterinarian or the A.

Always bring the prescription container with you when you take your pet for treatment. If you or someone else has accidentally ingested this medication call the National Capital Poison Center at Storage Different strengths or dosage forms of prednisolone and prednisone may have different storage requirements.

Read the labeling or ask your pharmacist for the storage requirements of the prescription you receive. Looking for Prednisolone and Prednisone?

Contact my veterinarian. Log in as a practice. Barbara Forney is a veterinary practitioner in Chester County, Pennsylvania. She has a master's degree in animal science from the University of Delaware and graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine in She began to develop her interest in client education and medical writing in How much will my prescription cost?

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  You may have saved your dog's life. Mixing a steroid like prednisone with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID's) drug such as Rimadyl or aspirin can cause. In healthy dogs, sustained aspirin, prednisone, and combination therapy do not inhibit platelet aggregation, and when used as individual. Aspirin can cause gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers in dogs, but ultralow dosages ( mg/kg/day) are usually considered safe. A recent study in the.     ❾-50%}

 

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    Pet-Ag donates over 1 million dollars worth of products to feed newborn puppies and kittens affected by Hurricane Ian. One dog in the placebo group, on day 14, was classified as an aspirin responder without receiving any aspirin. Detection of activated platelets in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. In our study, blood samples for platelet analysis were collected before the administration of any anesthetic medication and performance of endoscopy, and there was at least a day recovery period before the collection of the next blood sample. She has a master's degree in animal science from the University of Delaware and graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine in Fisher's exact test revealed no significant relationships between aspirin responder status and treatment on day 14 or Therefore, many dogs require increases in their phenobarbital dose over time to maintain the same level of seizure control.

Furthermore, our study only evaluated two time points during drug administration, limiting comparison to prior work. Another limitation to our study was that three techniques were used to collect urine for urine dTXB 2 quantitation, and it is possible that the lack of consistency in the collection technique could have influenced the dTXB 2 -to-creatinine ratios.

Additionally, blood and urine were collected within 4 h of drug administration, but sample collection was not performed at the exact same time point for each dog. Because aspirin irreversibly inhibits platelet function and therapeutic monitoring was first performed after 14 days of administration, the platelet function should be inhibited, this small difference in timing would be anticipated to have minimal effect on platelet function testing results. Additionally, previous studies in dogs have shown that the change in platelet function when treated with anti-platelet doses of aspirin are gradual, lacking dramatic changes during a short period of time 18 , An additional limitation to our study was the assessment of only 1 thromboprophylactic agent.

Anticoagulants, such as heparin and rivaroxaban, are considered the preferred anti-coagulant therapy in dogs with IMHA 5 , Thus, oral anti-platelet therapy remains 1 of the most affordable, long-term thromboprophylactic therapies and can be an effective thromboprophylactic therapy in dogs with IMHA 5 , Additional studies would be required to assess the effectiveness of anticoagulant and non-aspirin anti-platelet therapies to counteract glucocorticoid-induced hypercoagulability.

Dogs with IMHA are predisposed to developing thromboembolism, and the administration of glucocorticoids might contribute to a hypercoagulable state.

Additional studies using a wider array of platelet function testing methodologies in hypercoagulable dogs need to be performed. The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. The animal study was reviewed and approved by the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocol number and was in compliance with the requirements of a facility accredited by the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care.

AM and JW organized and conducted the experiment. The funders had no involvement in the design or performance of the study, writing of the manuscript, or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Erb HN. Evaluation of prognostic factors, survival rates, and treatment protocols for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in dogs: cases J Am Vet Med Assoc. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia: 70 cases J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. Prognostic factors for mortality and thromboembolism in canine immune-mediated hemolytic anemia: a retrospective study of 72 dogs. J Vet Intern Med. Detection of activated platelets in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.

ACVIM consensus statement on the treatment of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in dogs. ACVIM consensus statement on the diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in dogs and cats. Effects of oral prednisone administration with or without ultralow-dose acetylsalicylic acid on coagulation parameters in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res. Independent and combined effects of prednisone and acetylsalicylic acid on thromboelastography variables in healthy dogs.

Effect of prednisone administration on coagulation variables in healthy Beagle dogs. Vet Clin Pathol. Pulmonary thromboembolism. Correlation between leukocytosis and necropsy findings in dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia: 34 cases J Vet Emerg Crit Care. Floyd CN, Ferro A. Mechanisms of aspirin resistance. Pharmacol Ther. Effects of aspirin dose escalation on platelet function and urinary thromboxane and prostacyclin levels in normal.

J Vet Pharmacol Therap. Platelet cyclooxygenase expression in normal dogs. The effect of misoprostol on aspirin-induced gastroduodenal lesions in dogs. Shaw N, Burrows CF. King RR. Massive gastric hemorrhage induced by buffered aspirin in a greyhound. Cyclooxygenase expression and platelet function in healthy dogs receiving low-dose aspirin. In vitro and in vivo assessment of platelet function in healthy dogs during administration of a low-dose aspirin regimen.

Clinical, clinicopathologic, and gastrointestinal changes from aspirin, prednisone, or combination therapy in healthy research dogs: a double-blind randomized trial. Exp Toxicol Pathol. The dogs also underwent a gastroduodenoscopic examination seven days before therapy was instituted to detect any pre-existing lesions on the GI mucosa and obtain a baseline appearance.

Once therapy was initiated, the dogs were separated into three groups-those receiving only prednisone 2. The researchers were blinded as to which group each dog was in. The dogs received these medications for 27 days, and the researchers continued to observe the dogs every eight hours and note any GI signs and the number of bowel movements. The dogs underwent additional gastroduodenoscopic examinations five, 14, and 27 days after drug or placebo administration began.

In terms of GI signs, no significant difference was found among any of the groups for vomiting or diarrhea, and no dogs showed signs of dehydration, lethargy, or inappetence after 27 days of drug administration.

Mucosal lesion scores were compared by a Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: There were no significant differences in the gastroduodenal lesion scores among groups, or within groups at any time during the study. Written by:. Jennifer Coates, DVM. Phenobarbital In comparison to cimetidine, phenobarbital presents the opposite problem when it comes to drug interactions.

Preventing Drug Interactions in Pets Of course, there are many more drug interactions than those mentioned here. Help us make PetMD better Was this article helpful? Yes No. Prednisone must be converted to prednisolone in the liver. Animals in liver failure should receive prednisolone rather than prednisone.

Prednisone and prednisolone should be avoided or used very carefully in young animals both because of immune suppression and the risk of GI ulcers. It should be avoided during pregnancy and lactation unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Drug Interactions Be sure to review with your veterinarian any medications or supplements your pet may be receiving. Drugs that may cause drug interactions with prednisone and prednisolone include aspirin and other salicylates, phenytoin, phenobarbital, rifampin, cyclosporine, erythromycin, mitotane, anticholinesterase drugs such as neostigmine and pyridostigmine, amphotericin B, or diuretics, such as furosemide.

The risk of stomach ulcers may be increased if prednisone or prednisolone is used at the same time with other drugs prone to causing ulcers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs. Digitalis and potassium levels should be closely monitored in animals taking prednisone and prednisolone.

Prednisone and prednisolone may increase insulin requirements in diabetic animals. Overdose If you suspect your pet or another animal was overdosed accidentally or has eaten this medication inadvertently, contact your veterinarian or the A.

Always bring the prescription container with you when you take your pet for treatment. If you or someone else has accidentally ingested this medication call the National Capital Poison Center at Storage Different strengths or dosage forms of prednisolone and prednisone may have different storage requirements. Read the labeling or ask your pharmacist for the storage requirements of the prescription you receive. Looking for Prednisolone and Prednisone?

All rights reserved. An increasingly popular form of therapy for many conditions--most commonly immune-mediated hemolytic anemia but also systemic lupus erythematosus and membranous glomerulonephritis, among others--is combining prednisone with ultralow-dose aspirin.

An increasingly popular form of therapy for many conditions-most commonly immune-mediated hemolytic anemia but also systemic lupus erythematosus and membranous glomerulonephritis, among others-is combining prednisone with ultralow-dose aspirin.

The prednisone has immunosuppressive effects, and the aspirin helps prevent thromboembolism, which may occur in these patients; thromboembolic sequelae in particular play a role in the morbidity and mortality of patients with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.

Aspirin can cause gastrointestinal GI ulcers in dogs, but ultralow dosages 0. A recent study in the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine investigated whether combining prednisone with ultralow-dose aspirin might also be safe in healthy dogs. The researchers did not perform the study in sick animals because it would be difficult to determine whether it was the drugs or the disease itself that was causing GI effects.

The researchers observed 18 healthy dogs that were between the ages of 12 and 24 months and weighed between They noted the number of bowel movements as well as any GI signs. The dogs also underwent a gastroduodenoscopic examination seven days before therapy was instituted to detect any pre-existing lesions on the GI mucosa and obtain a baseline appearance. Once therapy was initiated, the dogs were separated into three groups-those receiving only prednisone 2. The researchers were blinded as to which group each dog was in.

The dogs received these medications for 27 days, and the researchers continued to observe the dogs every eight hours and note any GI signs and the number of bowel movements. The dogs underwent additional gastroduodenoscopic examinations five, 14, and 27 days after drug or placebo administration began. In terms of GI signs, no significant difference was found among any of the groups for vomiting or diarrhea, and no dogs showed signs of dehydration, lethargy, or inappetence after 27 days of drug administration.

The findings from the gastroduodenoscopic examinations were also not significantly different. However, about one week after the drug administration began, the dogs that received prednisone and aspirin-two dogs, in particular-did have a significant increase in the number of episodes of diarrhea compared with before treatment initiation.

The diarrhea was mild and resolved within five days of halting the aspirin treatment and decreasing the prednisone dose, indicating that the drugs were a factor in the diarrhea development. But since the diarrhea was mild and the gastroduodenal lesion scores didn't differ among groups, the researchers thought, overall, that a combination of prednisone and ultralow-dose aspirin is safe in healthy adult dogs for at least 27 days.

They did caution the usage of this regimen in older sick dogs because the diarrhea may worsen with age or illness, and they suggest that clinical studies in such dogs are needed in order to further evaluate adverse effects associated with this drug combination. Effects of prednisone alone or prednisone with ultralow-dose aspirin on the gastroduodenal mucosa of healthy dogs. J Vet Intern Med ;23 3 Pet-Ag donates over 1 million dollars worth of products to feed newborn puppies and kittens affected by Hurricane Ian.

By Role. Prednisone and ultralow-dose aspirin: Good for the gut? September 1, Untitled Document An increasingly popular form of therapy for many conditions-most commonly immune-mediated hemolytic anemia but also systemic lupus erythematosus and membranous glomerulonephritis, among others-is combining prednisone with ultralow-dose aspirin. Related Content: Clinical. Common ticks in the US affecting dogs. Canine separation anxiety during post-pandemic era. The 5 deadliest zoonotic diseases and pathogens.

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Coadministration of prednisone and ultralow-dose aspirin increases the frequency of mild, self-limiting diarrhea in some dogs. You may have saved your dog's life. Mixing a steroid like prednisone with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID's) drug such as Rimadyl or aspirin can cause. Using aspirin together with predniSONE may increase the risk of side effects in the gastrointestinal tract such as inflammation, bleeding, ulceration. Drugs that may cause drug interactions with prednisone and prednisolone include aspirin and other salicylates, phenytoin, phenobarbital. Significantly more dog‐days of diarrhea occurred in the prednisone and aspirin group during treatment, compared with baseline. Relation between long term steroid treatment after heart transplantation, hypofibrinolysis and myocardial microthrombi generation.

Glucocorticoid administration is a risk factor for thromboembolism in hypercoagulable dogs, and it is unknown if aspirin counteracts glucocorticoid-induced hypercoagulability.

The objective was to determine the effects of sustained aspirin and prednisone administration on platelet function and thromboxane synthesis.

Our hypothesis was that aspirin would consistently inhibit platelet function and thromboxane synthesis when administered with or without prednisone. In 24 healthy dogs, platelet aggregometry and urine dehydro-thromboxane-B 2 dTXB 2 -to-creatinine ratios were measured on days 0, 14, and On day 14, 2 dogs were aspirin responders aspirin, 1; placebo, 1.

In healthy dogs, sustained aspirin, prednisone, and combination therapy do not inhibit platelet aggregation, and when used as individual therapies, aspirin and prednisone decreased thromboxane synthesis. Additional studies using varied platelet function methodologies in hypercoagulable dogs are necessary. Glucocorticoids are the mainstay of therapy for immune-mediated disorders including immune-mediated hemolytic anemia IMHA , immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, inflammatory bowel disease, and immune-mediated polyarthritis.

The mechanisms that cause thrombus formation in dogs with IMHA are multifactorial and include endothelial damage, an imbalance between pro- and anticoagulant factors, and increased platelet activation 2 , 4 , 5. Standard treatment for dogs with IMHA is multimodal and includes immunosuppression, thromboprophylaxis, and supportive care 1 , 6.

Glucocorticoids, such as prednisone, are the most commonly used immunosuppressive agent for the treatment of IMHA in dogs.

Unfortunately, glucocorticoid administration can result in hypercoagulability in healthy dogs 7 — 9 , and it has been identified as a risk factor for thromboembolism in clinical patients 8 , 10 , Thromboprophylactic medications commonly are administered to dogs with IMHA to prevent thromboembolic complications 5 , Weinkle et al.

Aspirin irreversibly inhibits platelet function by decreasing thromboxane A 2 TXA 2 synthesis Primarily produced by activated platelets, TXA 2 triggers vasoconstriction, causes platelet activation, and enhances platelet aggregation However, it is unknown if low-dose aspirin counteracts glucocorticoid-induced hypercoagulability or, alternatively, if glucocorticoid-induced hypercoagulability offsets the antiplatelet effects of aspirin.

Previous studies assessing the combined hemodynamic effects of immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and aspirin in healthy dogs used thromboelastography to assess hypo- or hypercoagulable profile, but platelet function was not specifically evaluated 7 , 8.

Additionally, these studies used an aspirin dose of 0. Finally, these studies were limited in duration to 6 and 14 days of therapy. Our hypothesis was that sustained administration of aspirin would consistently inhibit platelet function and thromboxane synthesis when administered singly or with concurrent immunosuppressive doses of prednisone. Blood samples for this study were collected from 24 healthy dogs from the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine teaching and research colony during a related study assessing gastrointestinal effects of sustained aspirin and prednisone therapy Dogs were determined to be healthy based on lack of clinical signs of disease and lack of abnormalities on physical examination and CBC, serum chemistry panel, urinalysis, urine protein:creatinine ratio, and fecal flotation with direct smear Animal use was approved by the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocol number and was in compliance with the requirements of a facility accredited by the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care.

The power analysis was performed using SAS 9. Dogs in the placebo group received 2 placebo capsules once daily, while dogs in groups 2 and 3 were administered 1 placebo capsule. Prednisone was administered using commercially-available prednisone tablets West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.

All treatments were administered in small meatballs once daily prior to feeding by an individual blinded to the individual treatments and groups. The study involved three periods: acclimation, baseline, and treatment.

Blood and urine samples were collected at the conclusion of baseline and on days 14 and 28 and within 3 h of drug administration. Blood was collected by jugular venipuncture with a gauge needle directly into Vacutainer tubes containing EDTA hematocrit and manual platelet count and hirudin aggregometry. For platelet aggregometry, the tube of blood was held at room temperature without disturbance until analysis, and all samples were analyzed within 4 h of collection.

Approximately 2—5 mL of urine was collected via free catch, catheterization, or cystocentesis using a gauge 1. Complete blood counts with manual platelet counts were performed at each time point by a commercial diagnostic laboratory Methodology Automated Blood Analyzer, Antech Diagnostics, Fountain Valley CA. Within the dual sensor unit, the electrical resistance between the sensor wires was recorded. Aggregation was assessed using arachidonic acid at a final concentration of 0.

Platelet aggregation was analyzed and recorded as area under the curve AUC. Each dual sensor unit generated 2 separate results, which were averaged to yield a single AUC value at each time point. For the 2 measurements that were used to create the final AUC value, a deviation from the mean was calculated. All samples were analyzed within 4 h of blood collection.

Samples were analyzed per the manufacturer's instructions. Samples were analyzed in triplicate and the results were averaged. The concentrations of dTXB 2 were reported in picograms per milliliter of urine. Descriptive statistics were generated for relevant clinical and clinicopathologic parameters.

Additionally, box-and-whisker plots were analyzed for the presence of outliers. Platelet count, hematocrit, AUC, AUC deviation from the mean, and dTXB 2 :creatinine ratio were compared using split-plot repeated measures ANOVAs that included fixed effects of treatment group, sampling time, and the treatment-by-time interaction The repeated measure of time was accounted for in a repeated statement.

Dog within treatment group was included as a random effect. The Shapiro-Wilk test of normality and QQ plots of the residuals were evaluated for each marker to confirm the assumption of normally distributed residuals had been met. Model assumptions regarding equality of variances were verified with Levene's Test for Equality of Variances. Studentized residual diagnostics were performed to evaluate each mixed model for the presence of outliers. Differences in marginal means were determined for markers with significant main effect or interaction terms.

Non-normally distributed data were rank-transformed, as necessary, to meet underlying statistical assumptions. Fisher's exact test was performed to assess the relationship between treatment and AUC response on days 14 and Statistical computer programs MedCalc Details of the study population have been reported elsewhere Briefly, there were 9 intact females, 8 intact males, and 7 neutered males.

There were 15 beagles and 9 mixed breed hounds, which were evenly distributed among the treatment groups. Median age was 3 years range, 2—7 years , and median body weight was Hematocrit and platelet count results are summarized in Table 1.

The following day, the platelet count was within the reference interval based on both automated count and manual review of a blood smear. Platelet counts and hematocrits otherwise were unremarkable for all time points. Platelet count did not differ significantly by treatment group, sampling time, or treatment-by-time.

Table 1. The AUC for whole-blood aggregometry are presented in Figures 1 , 2. Deviation in the mean AUC did not differ significantly by treatment group, sampling time, or treatment-by-time.

Figure 1. Impedance aggregometry AUCs for 24 healthy dogs administered placebo, aspirin with placebo, prednisone with placebo, or combination prednisone and aspirin therapy for 28 days.

The box and whiskers plot demonstrate the median line , interquartile range box , and total range whiskers. Figure 2. Urine dTXB 2 :creatinine ratios for 24 healthy dogs administered placebo, aspirin with placebo, prednisone with placebo, or combination prednisone and aspirin therapy for 28 days. The brackets indicate the significant differences between treatment groups. On day 14, there was 1 dog in the aspirin group and 1 dog in the placebo group classified as an aspirin responder.

Fisher's exact test revealed no significant relationships between aspirin responder status and treatment on day 14 or The urine dTXB 2 -to-creatinine ratios for all treatment groups at all sample time points are presented in Figures 1 , 2. Rank transformation was required prior to statistical analysis of urine dTXB 2 -to-creatinine ratios. Aspirin is commonly administered to prevent thrombus formation, but it is unknown if anti-platelet doses of aspirin counteract glucocorticoid-induced hypercoagulability.

The results of our study suggests that sustained administration of an anti-platelet dose of aspirin does not significantly inhibit whole blood platelet aggregation when administered to healthy dogs alone or in combination with prednisone. The mechanisms of exogenous glucocorticoid-induced hypercoagulability in dogs are unknown, but they might include decreased fibrinolysis, increased fibrinogen concentration, and decreased antithrombin activity 7 , 8.

In humans, chronic administration of exogenous glucocorticoids can cause a decrease in fibrinolysis and increase in fibrinogen concentration due to high plasminogen activator-inhibitor 1 activity 7 , 28 — 30 , but this has not been documented in dogs. Most studies evaluating the coagulation status of dogs during exogenous glucocorticoid administration have focused on measures of secondary or global hemostasis, such as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, activated clotting time, fibrinogen concentration, antithrombin activity, thrombin-antithrombin complex, thromboelastography, and thrombin generation 7 — 9.

Studies that have specifically evaluated primary hemostasis, or platelet aggregation, and thromboxane synthesis, have not been performed.

In previous studies, there have been contrasting results regarding platelet reactivity during the administration of immunosuppressive doses of prednisone.

Similar to our study, Thomason et al. In contrast, despite using the same agonist to initiate platelet aggregation, Romao et al. Therefore, additional studies are required to better understand how glucocorticoids affect platelet function, especially when administered with anti-platelet therapy.

The results of our study did not demonstrate a significant decrease in platelet aggregation when dogs were treated with aspirin, either as a single agent or when combined with prednisone.

These results were surprising because the aspirin dosage used in our study previously has been shown to consistently inhibit platelet function in dogs via two different platelet function analyzers optical platelet aggregometry and the PFA Additionally, previous studies using lower dosages of aspirin 0.

One dog in the placebo group, on day 14, was classified as an aspirin responder without receiving any aspirin. The criteria used in our study to define aspirin response was based on a percent decrease from pre-treatment values. One possible explanation for this result is the variation with the platelet aggregometer. When using platelet aggregometry, small fluctuations in platelet function can occur, and these fluctuations could have contributed to classifying this dog as an aspirin responder.

This is the first study to evaluate this combination of medications for an extended period of time, which could have contributed to the differences in results compared to previous studies 14 , 18 , Another potential explanation for these results is the use of the multiple-electrode impedance aggregometer.

Additionally, using the same parameters to define aspirin response, Haines et al. When samples were analyzed using conventional optical and impedance aggregometry, however, 13 of 16 dogs were classified as aspirin responders on both days 3 and 7 of therapy. One difference between Haines et al. A recent study showed that when using this multiple-electrode aggregometer, arachidonic acid provided the most consistent results when blood was treated with acetylsalicylic acid



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